[Temperament and Character Inventory Revised (TCI-R). Standardization and normative data in a general population sample]

Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2004 Jan-Feb;32(1):8-15.
[Article in Spanish]


Introduction: The revised version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R), a tool designed by C. R. Cloninger for the evaluation of the seven dimensions defined in his psychobiological model of personality, was translated and adapted to Spanish. The aim of the study was to obtain normative data and scales with T-scores in a incidental sample of the general Spanish population.

Methods: After adaptation to Spanish, the tool was administered to 400 subjects from several areas of Spain. The sample is stratified according to age and gender according to the year 2001 Spanish population census. We have studied the differences between men and women and the association between age and dimensions. We have checked the normal distribution of the traits, and proceeded with the standardization and normalization of the scores.

Results: We present the mean and standard deviation according to sex for each of the main dimensions and subscales. The scores of the main dimensions obtained for general population according to gender show a normal distribution that has allowed us to standardize them into T-scores. The reliability of the dimensions is high. There are differences in the means depending on gender: women scored higher in Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence and Cooperativeness. Men scored higher in Persistence. There were no high correlations between age and the dimensions.

Conclusions: The Spanish version of the new TCI-R is an adequate tool for the study of personality dimensions of normal population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Character*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Population Surveillance
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Temperament*