Cervical lordosis angle measured on lateral cephalograms; findings in skeletal class II female subjects with and without TMD: a cross sectional study

Cranio. 2004 Jan;22(1):27-44. doi: 10.1179/crn.2004.005.


The literature reports evidence of various types of correlations between cervical alterations and cervical pain, and the existence of cervical pain in subjects with temporomandibular joint internal derangement (TMD). The hypothesis of this study is that cervical lordosis angle (CVT/EVT angle) alteration on cephalometrics could be correlated to the presence of TMD. The cephalometric records of 50 females with documented TMD were compared with those of a control group of 50 females. The subjects in the sample were 25-35 years of age, average 28.9 years (SD, 3.2). Radiographs were taken in mirror position, and seventeen variables, including the CVT/EVT angle, were traced. Double measurements were made to evaluate method error using Dahlberg's formula. Pearson's correlation coefficient and Mann-Whitney's t-test were used to evaluate the data. Intra-group analysis showed significant correlations between the CVT/EVT angle and mandibular length (p<0.01), mandibular position (p<0.05), mandibular divergence (p<0.01), and overjet (p<0.01) in both groups. Between groups, the analysis showed significant differences in CVT/EVT angle (p<0.05), maxillary protrusion (p<0.01), mandibular protrusion (p<0.01), mandibular length (p<0.01), mandibular divergence (p<0.05), and overbite (p<0.05).

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cephalometry*
  • Cervical Vertebrae / pathology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Joint Dislocations / complications
  • Lordosis / pathology*
  • Malocclusion, Angle Class II / complications*
  • Malocclusion, Angle Class II / pathology
  • Mandible / pathology
  • Maxilla / pathology
  • Neck Pain / complications
  • Pain Measurement
  • Skull Base / pathology
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disc / pathology
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disorders / complications*
  • Vertical Dimension