This study assesses the perception of the decision-making process of 25 surgeons and 194 patients (aged 21-81 years) who had newly diagnosed breast cancer and had to undergo mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery (BCS). The majority of women wanted to participate in decision-making. When it was medically possible to give a choice between BCS and mastectomy, only 59% of women received a choice. The main reason that 11% of the women went against surgeon's recommendations was fear of cancer recurrence. The most influential factors for women were the surgeon's recommendation, and fear of cancer recurrence. Medical assessment and the cosmetic result were the most influential factors for the surgeons. Female surgeons were more influenced by their assessment of the women's need for security, than male. In conclusion, not all women who are eligible for BCS receive an option. Women and surgeons emphasize influencing factors differently. The surgeon's gender was found to influence recommendation given.