Background and objective: Regular physical activity is associated with an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), whose antioxidant and protective effect for coronary artery disease is well known. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an enzyme related with the antioxidant activity of HDL. The PON1 gene has several genetic polymorphisms; one of them locates in codon 192, whose alleles Q and R are associated with low and high PON1-activity, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether physical activity has different effects on the lipid profile in women depending on the PON1-192 genotype.
Patients and method: Six hundred and fifty-one women from a cross-sectional risk-factor study were included in this retrospective cohort study. We analyzed anthropometrical characteristics, serum lipids and lipoproteins, blood pressure, PON1-192 genotypes and menopause. We used the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess the daily physical activity in the previous year.
Results: Women included in the study were classified into three categories by tertiles of daily physical activity. Although no differences in the lipidic parameters were found, we observed an increasing trend in HDL-C concentration and a decreasing trend in log-triglyceride-to-HDL-cholesterol ratio with increasing physical activity in RR homozygous women. In subgroup analyses, we observed that the association of high physical activity and increased HDL-C concentration or decreased log-triglyceride-to-HDL-cholesterol ratio were exclusive for RR homozygous non-menopausal women.
Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that PON1-192 polymorphism could modulate the effect of physical activity on HDL-C concentration and on triglyceride-rich lipoprotein catabolism in non-menopausal women.