The two major advances over the 1990s in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were a shift in strategy from a "pyramid", in which disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were deferred for several years, to the early aggressive use of DMARDs and widespread acceptance of methotrexate as the DMARD with the most long-term effectiveness and safety. Methotrexate courses are continued far longer than those of any other DMARD, an excellent indicator of greater effectiveness and safety. In one recent series, methotrexate was the first DMARD used in more than 80% of patients with RA. Studies which document the superiority of combinations of methotrexate with biological agents to methotrexate monotherapy select for only a minority of contemporary patients with RA who have severe disease activity and incomplete responses to methotrexate. In one locale, only 5% of patients met criteria for the Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Trial in RA with Concomitant Therapy (ATTRACT) trial and only 30% met the criteria for the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (ERA) trial. In studies comparing methotrexate directly with biological agents, the biological agents have greater efficacy in patients with very severe disease, but the best results are seen in patients who take a combination of methotrexate and biologic agents. These data establish that methotrexate is the anchor drug and probably should be the first DMARD used in the majority of patients with RA at this time.