The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder is correlated with cancer progression

Urol Oncol. Jan-Feb 2004;22(1):1-6. doi: 10.1016/S1078-1439(03)00015-2.


Vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates neovascualrization in malignant cells. VEGF as a mitogen is thought to alter cancer cell formation and tumor progression. We aimed to investigative the expression of the VEGF gene to evaluate their clinical significance in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of urinary bladder. Tissue samples from 161 patients with TCC were examined with an immunohistochemical stain for the expression of the VEGF gene. The expression rate was compared to 32 normal bladder mucosal samples obtained from transurehtral surgery from noncancer patients. The results revealed significant differences between normal urothelium (0%) and cancer tissue (54.7%) for the positive staining of VEGF protein (P < 0.001). With the progression of tumor grade and clinical staging, the positive rate of VEGF gene expression significantly increased. Expression of the VEGF gene in the invasive group was greater than that in the noninvasive group (P < 0.001). The results revealed that expression of the VEGF gene is proportional to the formation and progression of TCC. Therefore, abnormal expression of VEGF genes can be used as a prognostic marker in TCC of urinary bladder.

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis*
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / metabolism
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology*
  • Disease Progression
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Urothelium / metabolism
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A