For a person undertaking regular exercise, any fluid deficit that is incurred during one exercise session can potentially compromise the next exercise session if adequate fluid replacement does not occur. Fluid replacement after exercise can, therefore, frequently be thought of as hydration before the next exercise bout. The importance of ensuring euhydration before exercise and the potential benefits of temporary hyperhydration with sodium salts or glycerol solutions are also important issues. Post-exercise restoration of fluid balance after sweat-induced dehydration avoids the detrimental effects of a body water deficit on physiological function and subsequent exercise performance. For effective restoration of fluid balance, the consumption of a volume of fluid in excess of the sweat loss and replacement of electrolyte, particularly sodium, losses are essential. Intravenous fluid replacement after exercise has been investigated to a lesser extent and its role for fluid replacement in the dehydrated but otherwise well athlete remains equivocal.