The effects of land vs. aquatic plyometrics on power, torque, velocity, and muscle soreness in women

J Strength Cond Res. 2004 Feb;18(1):84-91. doi: 10.1519/1533-4287(2004)018<0084:teolva>;2.


The purpose of this study was to compare changes in performance indicators (power, torque, and velocity) and muscle soreness between plyometric training on land and in water. Thirty-two college age women were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of an identical plyometric training program on land or in an aquatic setting. Performance indicators were assessed pretraining, midtraining, and posttraining. Muscle soreness (ordinal scale) and pain sensitivity (palpation) were assessed after a training bout (0, 48, and 96 hours) during the first week of training and when training intensity was increased (weeks 3 and 6). Performance indictors increased for both groups (pretraining < midtraining < posttraining, p < or = 0.001). Muscle soreness was significantly greater in the land compared to the aquatic plyometric training group at baseline and each time training intensity was increased, p = 0.01. Aquatic plyometrics provided the same performance enhancement benefits as land plyometrics with significantly less muscle soreness.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Exercise*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Pain / etiology
  • Pain / prevention & control*
  • Physical Education and Training / methods*
  • Swimming Pools
  • Torque