Type-A Arabidopsis response regulators are partially redundant negative regulators of cytokinin signaling

Plant Cell. 2004 Mar;16(3):658-71. doi: 10.1105/tpc.018978. Epub 2004 Feb 18.


Type-A Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) response regulators (ARRs) are a family of 10 genes that are rapidly induced by cytokinin and are highly similar to bacterial two-component response regulators. We have isolated T-DNA insertions in six of the type-A ARRs and constructed multiple insertional mutants, including the arr3,4,5,6,8,9 hextuple mutant. Single arr mutants were indistinguishable from the wild type in various cytokinin assays; double and higher order arr mutants showed progressively increasing sensitivity to cytokinin, indicating functional overlap among type-A ARRs and that these genes act as negative regulators of cytokinin responses. The induction of cytokinin primary response genes was amplified in arr mutants, indicating that the primary response to cytokinin is affected. Spatial patterns of ARR gene expression were consistent with partially redundant function of these genes in cytokinin signaling. The arr mutants show altered red light sensitivity, suggesting a general involvement of type-A ARRs in light signal transduction. Further, morphological phenotypes of some arr mutants suggest complex regulatory interactions and gene-specific functions among family members.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / drug effects
  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism
  • Cytokinins / metabolism*
  • Cytokinins / pharmacology
  • DNA Transposable Elements
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Genes, Plant / drug effects
  • Light
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Phylogeny
  • Plant Roots / growth & development
  • Seedlings / growth & development
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Cytokinins
  • DNA Transposable Elements
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • T-DNA
  • Transcription Factors