The genus Trichosporon was revised using characters of morphology, ultrastructure, physiology, ubiquinone systems, mol% G + C of DNA, DNA/DNA reassociations and 26S ribosomal RNA partial sequences. A total of 101 strains was used, including all available type and authentic cultures of previously described taxa. Nineteen taxa could be distinguished, 15 of which having Q-9 coenzyme systems and 4 having Q-10. Sixteen previously described names were reduced to synonymy. One new species was described. The genus is characterized by the presence of arthroconidia. Few species possess further diagnostic morphological characters, such as the presence of appressoria, macroconidia or meristematic conidiation. The septa of two species were found to be non-perforate, while those of the remaining species contained dolipores at variable degrees of differentiation, with or without vesicular or tubular parenthesomes. All species were able to assimilate a large number of carbon compounds; visible CO2 production was absent. The genus was found to be fairly homogeneous on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis of partial 26S rRNA sequences, with the exception of T. pullulans which proved to be unrelated. Most taxa were found to occupy well-defined ecological niches. Within the group of taxa isolated from humans, a distinction could be made between those involved in systemic mycoses and those which mainly caused pubic or non-pubic white piedras, respectively. One species was consistently associated with animals, while others came mainly from soil or water. One species was mesophilic and another psychrophilic.