Routes to transplant tolerance versus rejection; the role of cytokines

Immunity. 2004 Feb;20(2):121-31. doi: 10.1016/s1074-7613(04)00024-x.


The alloimmune response can be divided into specific junctures where critical decisions between tolerance and immunity are made which define the outcome of the transplant. At these "decision nodes" various cytokines direct alloresponsive T cells to develop either a proinflammatory response aimed at graft destruction or an immunoregulatory response facilitating graft acceptance. This review will focus on the role of these cytokines in influencing the progression of an alloimmune response leading ultimately to either allograft survival or rejection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cytokines / immunology*
  • Graft Rejection / immunology*
  • Graft Survival / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immune Tolerance*
  • Signal Transduction / immunology


  • Cytokines