The prevalence of coeliac disease in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was investigated using a screening test of serum for antigliadin antibody by ELISA. One hundred and eighty (180) unselected diabetic children were screened for IgA and IgG class antigliadin antibodies (AGA); children with either grossly elevated or slightly elevated AGA had small bowel biopsies. The four children with the highest IgA AGA had total villous atrophy. These four children were considered to have unsuspected coeliac disease. The prevalence of coeliac disease in this group of children was one in 45. Anti-gliadin IgA and IgG tests are suitable for screening children at high risk of having coeliac disease.