Studies on endocytic mechanisms of the Menkes copper-translocating P-type ATPase (ATP7A; MNK). Endocytosis of the Menkes protein

Biometals. 2004 Feb;17(1):87-98. doi: 10.1023/a:1024413631537.


The human X-linked recessive copper deficiency disorder, Menkes disease, is caused by mutations in the ATP7A (MNK) gene, which encodes a transmembrane copper-transporting P-type ATPase (MNK). The MNK protein is localised to the Golgi apparatus and relocalises to the plasma membrane when copper levels are elevated. Previous studies have identified a C-terminal di-leucine endocytic motif (L1487L1488) in MNK, thought to direct it into the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. To determine whether MNK is internalised via clathrin-dependent endocytosis, this pathway was blocked in MNK-overexpressing HeLa cells by the transient expression of dominant negative dynamin and Eps15 mutants. MNK internalisation was not inhibited in such cells. MNK internalisation was inhibited in cells treated with hypertonic sucrose that not only blocked clathrin-mediated endocytosis but also fluid-phase endocytosis. These studies, together with earlier studies on the requirement for L1487L1488, suggest that MNK can utilise both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytosis in HeLa cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / genetics
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / metabolism*
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Cation Transport Proteins / genetics
  • Cation Transport Proteins / metabolism*
  • Clathrin / metabolism
  • Copper / metabolism*
  • Copper-Transporting ATPases
  • Dynamin I / chemistry
  • Dynamin I / genetics
  • Dynamin I / metabolism
  • Endocytosis*
  • Gene Expression
  • Genes, Dominant / genetics
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Leucine / genetics
  • Leucine / metabolism
  • Lysine / genetics
  • Lysine / metabolism
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Protein Transport
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism*


  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Cation Transport Proteins
  • Clathrin
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Copper
  • Dynamin I
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases
  • ATP7A protein, human
  • Copper-Transporting ATPases
  • Leucine
  • Lysine