An in vitro replication system reconstituted from six purified T4 bacteriophage proteins, each of which is essential for T4 DNA replication in vivo, requires ATP. Because of the complexity of the complete system, we examine in this report the involvement of ATP in two subsystems of the overall DNA synthesis reaction. One subsystem consists of the T4 DNA polymerase (gene 43 protein) and its "accessory proteins," the gene 44/62 and 45 products. An even simpler subsystem consists of the gene 44/62 and 45 proteins alone, which together have a DNA-dependent ATPase activity. The combination of the 44/62 and 45 proteins hydrolyze ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate in the presence of DNA. These essential accessory proteins have been previously shown to increase T4 DNA polymerase activity on primed, single-stranded DNA templates. In this report we use nucleotide analogues to demonstrate that this polymerase stimulation requires hydrolysis of the beta,gamma-phosphate bond of ATP. However, our data suggest that the mechanism of accessory protein stimulation is such that less than 1 ATP molecule need be hydrolyzed per 10 deoxyribonucleotides incorporated by the DNA polymerase into DNA.