Naturally occurring anti-HIV-1 agent (+)-calanolide A was found to be active against all of the strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis tested, including those resistant to the standard antitubercular drugs. Efficacy evaluations in macrophages revealed that (+)-calanolide A significantly inhibited intracellular replication of M. tuberculosis H37Rv at concentrations below the MIC observed in vitro. Preliminary mechanistic studies indicated that (+)-calanolide A rapidly inhibits RNA and DNA synthesis followed by an inhibition of protein synthesis. Compared with known inhibitors, this scenario is more similar to effects observed with rifampin, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis. Since (+)-calanolide A was active against a rifampin-resistant strain, it is believed that these two agents may involve different targets. (+)-Calanolide A and its related pyranocoumarins are the first class of compounds identified to possess antimycobacterial and antiretroviral activities, representing a new pharmacophore for anti-TB activity.