Aims: To compare the effects of a high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet and a high-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) diet on LDL oxidative resistance in free-living individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods: Twenty-two men and women out-patients with Type 2 diabetes, with mean age 61 years and in fair metabolic control (HbA1c<8.0%), were enrolled at a university hospital lipid clinic in a randomized, crossover feeding trial comparing two isocaloric diets for 6 weeks each: CHO (fat, 28% energy) and MUFA (fat, 40% energy) based on virgin olive oil. Outcome measurements were changes in LDL susceptibility to oxidation, body weight, glycaemic control, and lipoprotein profiles.
Results: Planned and observed diets were well matched. Participants preferred the MUFA diet over the CHO diet. The lag time of conjugated diene formation during Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation was similar after the CHO and MUFA diets (36.4 +/- 12.2 min and 36.0 +/- 13.7 min, respectively). Body weight, glycaemic control, total triglycerides, and total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels also were similar after the two diets. Compared with the CHO diet, the MUFA diet lowered VLDL-cholesterol by 35% (P=0.023) and VLDL triglyceride by 16% (P=0.016).
Conclusions: Natural food-based high-CHO and high-MUFA diets have similar effects on LDL oxidative resistance and metabolic control in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. A MUFA diet is a good alternative to high-CHO diets for nutrition therapy of diabetes because it also has a beneficial effect on the lipid profile and superior patient acceptance.