Panic disorder is a common anxiety disorder which frequently co-occurs with agoraphobia. A functional promoter polymorphism in the serotonin receptor 1A (5-HT1A) gene has been found to be associated with major depression as well as anxiety- and depression-related personality traits. We investigated a possible association between this 5-HT1A gene promoter polymorphism and panic disorder by genotyping the 1019C>G single nucleotide polymorphism in 134 panic-disorder patients with and without agoraphobia and matched 134 controls. In our sample no significant evidence of allelic association in the combined panic-disorder group was found. However, our results show a significant association with the G allele in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (p=0.03, n=101). In conclusion, our findings do not support a major contribution of this polymorphism to the pathogenesis of panic disorder, but provide evidence for a possible role in the subgroup with agoraphobia.