Objective: To describe survival following nosocomial bloodstream infections and quantify excess mortality associated with positive blood culture.
Study design: Multicenter cohort study of premature infants.
Results: First blood culture was negative for 4648/5497 (78%) of the neonates--390/4648 (8%) died prior to discharge. Mortality prior to discharge was 19% in the 161 infants with Gram-negative rod (GNR) bacteremia, 8% in the 854 neonates with coagulase negative staphylococcus (CONS), 6% in the 169 infants infected with other Gram-positive bacteria (GP-o), and 26% in the 115 neonates with candidemia. The excess 7-day mortality was 0% for Gram-positive organisms and 83% for GNR bacteremia and candidemia. Using negative blood culture as referent, GNR [hazard ratio (HR)=2.61] and candidemia (HR=2.27) were associated with increased mortality; CONS (HR=1.08) and GP-o (HR=0.97) were not.
Conclusions: Nosocomial GNR bacteremia and candidemia were associated with increased mortality but Gram-positive bacteremia was not.