The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) affects 1%-10% of all paediatric renal transplant recipients. This is a heterogeneous group of conditions characterised by EBV-driven proliferation of B-lymphocytes in the face of impaired T-cell immune surveillance. The risk factors predisposing to PTLD are becoming better understood, but its pathogenesis and myriad of clinical and histological features remain poorly defined. While new treatment modalities are being tried with variable success, regular EBV surveillance and carefully monitored reduction of immunosuppression remain the mainstay of treatment. In this review, we have presented the current knowledge of this increasingly common complication in renal transplant recipients.