A large family of molecular chaperones can be divided into two major groups: general chaperone and substrate-specific chaperone. HSP47 is a collagen-specific molecular chaperone residing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Recent studies revealed that HSP47 is essential molecular chaperone for mouse development and is essential for collagen molecular maturation in the ER. In the absence of HSP47, collagen microfibril formation and basement membrane formation are impaired in mouse embryos because the failure in the molecular maturation of types I and IV collagens, respectively. The tissue-specific expression of HSP47 is always correlated with that of various types of collagens and closely related with the collagen-related diseases including fibrosis in various organs. The importance of HSP47 in the therapeutic strategy for fibrotic diseases as well as for a marker of collagen-related autoimmune diseases will also be discussed.