Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for early-onset torsion dystonia

Reprod Biomed Online. 2004 Feb;8(2):224-8. doi: 10.1016/s1472-6483(10)60520-2.


Early-onset primary torsion dystonia (DYT1) is the most severe and common form of hereditary movement disorders, characterized by sustained twisting contractures that begin in childhood, which is caused in majority of cases by a 3-bp deletion of the DYT1 gene on chromosome 9q34 at the heterozygote state. As there is no effective treatment of this disease, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may be a useful option for at-risk couples to establish an DYT1 mutation-free pregnancy. PGD was performed for two obligate carriers of the DYT1 3-bp deletion, using blastomere testing to preselect the mutation-free embryos, based on mutation analysis with simultaneous testing of the three closely linked markers, D9S62, D9S63 and ASS. Of 19 tested blastomeres in three cycles, 17 had conclusive information about the mutation and linked markers, of which eight were predicted to be free of 3-bp deletion. Six of these embryos were transferred back to patients, two in each cycle, yielding singleton DYT1 3-bp deletion-free clinical pregnancies in two. One of these pregnancies was terminated due to severe anencephaly and the other resulted in birth of a mutation-free child. This is the first PGD for primary torsion dystonia, providing an alternative for those at-risk couples who cannot accept prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy as an option for avoiding early onset torsion dystonia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Dystonia Musculorum Deformans / diagnosis*
  • Dystonia Musculorum Deformans / genetics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Molecular Chaperones / genetics
  • Molecular Chaperones / metabolism
  • Pedigree
  • Pregnancy
  • Preimplantation Diagnosis*
  • Reproductive Techniques, Assisted


  • Molecular Chaperones
  • TOR1A protein, human