Immune system versus tumor: shifting the balance in favor of DCs and effective immunity

J Clin Invest. 2004 Mar;113(5):664-7. doi: 10.1172/JCI21148.


Despite the initial excitement over cancer vaccines, the clinical effectiveness of immunotherapy has been disappointing. The suppressive milieu present within established tumors inhibits effective immune responses, although new strategies are emerging to manipulate the local tumor microenvironment and shift the balance back to a proinflammatory environment, promote DC activation, and enhance tumor immunity.

Publication types

  • Comment
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Cancer Vaccines
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immune System / physiology
  • Immunotherapy
  • Inflammation
  • Models, Biological
  • Neoplasms / immunology*
  • Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Phenotype


  • Cancer Vaccines