The influence of premenstrual symptoms on postural balance and kinesthesia during the menstrual cycle

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2003 Dec;17(6):433-9. doi: 10.1080/09513590312331290358.


Recent studies have indicated an increased incidence of female athletic injuries during the luteal phase and the first days of the menstrual period. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether postural sway and knee-joint kinesthesia very during the menstrual cycle, and whether premenstrual syndrome (PMS) influences postural balance and kinesthesia. A total of 13 subjects with regular menstrual cycles participated in the study. Postural sway and kinesthesia were measured in the early follicular phase, in the ovulation phase and in the mid-luteal phase. Postural sway was measured with an ankle disc placed on a Statometer, and kinesthesia was measured with a specially designed device. Menstrual cycle phases were determined by sex hormone analyses in serum and by luteinizing hormone (LH) detection in urine. The diagnosis of PMS was made prospectively using validated daily symptom ratings. Eight of 13 women were classified as having PMS. These women had a significantly greater postural sway (p = 0.002) and a greater threshold for detection of passive motion in the knee joints (p = 0.05) than women without PMS. A tendency (p = 0.06) towards greater postural sway in the mid-luteal phase was detected among women with PMS. This may explain the finding of an increased incidence of athletic injuries in the luteal phase, reported previously.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kinesthesis
  • Knee Joint*
  • Menstrual Cycle*
  • Posture*
  • Premenstrual Syndrome / blood
  • Premenstrual Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Premenstrual Syndrome / urine
  • Prospective Studies