1. The concentrations of total cholesterol (free cholesterol plus cholesteryl ester) in the plasma and in two lipoprotein fractions of golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) were measured during pre-hibernation and compared to those values measured during hibernation. 2. Hibernating ground squirrels had significantly higher (P less than 0.005) very low density lipoprotein plus low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL + LDL-C) concentrations than did pre-hibernating ground squirrels. 3. Hibernating squirrels additionally exhibited significantly higher (P less than 0.005) total plasma cholesterol concentration per high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (TPC/HDL-C) ratios than did pre-hibernating squirrels. 4. The significant differences in the lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations observed in this study suggest that lipoprotein metabolism in pre-hibernators was significantly different from that in hibernators and was a reflection of the marked biochemical and physiological adjustments these animals must undergo during their transition from pre-hibernation to hibernation.