Effect of phosphoenolpyruvate on metabolic and morphological recovery of red cells after prolonged liquid storage and subsequent freezing in glycerol medium

Cryobiology. 1992 Jun;29(3):342-6. doi: 10.1016/0011-2240(92)90035-z.


The present study was designed to determine the effects of (i) phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) treatment of red blood cells (RBCs) previously cold stored for a prolonged period in a liquid medium and (ii) the freezing of these treated cells in glycerol. RBCs stored for 21 days at 4 degrees C were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C with rejuvenant solution containing 50 mM PEP, 60 mM mannitol, 30 mM sodium chloride, 25 mM glucose, and 1 mM adenine, pH 6.0, and then frozen at -80 degrees C for 4 weeks. Red cell recovery as frozen and thawed red cells (FTRCs) after deglycerolization was increased to 80 +/- 4% compared to 43 +/- 9% in units without rejuvenation; the percentage of PEP-treated FTRCs was similar to the percentage of FTRCs recovered from fresh RBCs within 5 days after donation. Incubation of RBCs with PEP solution restored ATP and 2,3-DPG to levels seen in fresh RBCs, and also facilitated transformation of crenated RBCs to discocytes. These results indicate that maximum recovery of viable RBCs can be attained when FTRCs are processed from cells stored in the frozen state after they had been rejuvenated with PEP even after prolonged liquid storage.

MeSH terms

  • 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate
  • Adenosine Triphosphate / blood
  • Adult
  • Blood Preservation / methods*
  • Blood Transfusion, Autologous
  • Cryopreservation / methods*
  • Diphosphoglyceric Acids / blood
  • Erythrocytes* / cytology
  • Erythrocytes* / drug effects
  • Erythrocytes* / metabolism
  • Glycerol
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate / pharmacology*
  • Time Factors


  • Diphosphoglyceric Acids
  • 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Glycerol