The BCR-ABL1 kinase expressed in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) drives malignant transformation of human pre-B cells. Comparing genome-wide gene expression profiles of BCR-ABL1+ pre-B ALL and normal bone marrow pre-B cells by serial analysis of gene expression, many genes involved in pre-B cell receptor signaling are silenced in the leukemia cells. Although normal pre-B cells are selected for the expression of a functional pre-B cell receptor, BCR-ABL1+ ALL cells mostly do not harbor a productively rearranged IGH allele. In these cases, we identified traces of secondary VH gene rearrangements, which may have rendered an initially productive VH region gene nonfunctional. Even BCR-ABL1+ ALL cells harboring a functional VH region gene are unresponsive to pre-B cell receptor engagement and exhibit autonomous oscillatory Ca2+ signaling activity. Conversely, leukemia subclones surviving inhibition of BCR-ABL1 by STI571 restore responsiveness to antigen receptor engagement and differentiate into immature B cells expressing immunoglobulin light chains. BCR-ABL1 kinase activity is linked to defective pre-B cell receptor signaling and the expression of a truncated isoform of the pre-B cell receptor-associated linker molecule SLP65. Also in primary leukemia cells, truncated SLP65 is expressed before but not after treatment of the patients with STI571. We conclude that inhibition of BCR-ABL1 reconstitutes selection for leukemia cells expressing a functional (pre-) B cell receptor.