Viral diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality after hemopoietic stem cell transplantation. Because viral complications in these patients are clearly associated with the lack of recovery of virus-specific cellular immune responses, reconstitution of the host with in vitro expanded cytotoxic T lymphocytes is a potential approach to prevent and treat these diseases. Initial clinical studies of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in human stem cell transplant patients have shown that adoptively transferred donor-derived virus-specific T cells may restore protective immunity and control established infections. Preclinical studies are evaluating this approach for other viruses while strategies for generating T cells specific for multiple viruses to provide broader protection are being evaluated in clinical trials. The use of genetically modified T cells or the use of newer suicide genes may result in improved safety and efficacy.