A map of WW domain family interactions

Proteomics. 2004 Mar;4(3):643-55. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200300632.


WW domains are protein modules that bind proline-rich ligands. WW domain-ligand complexes are of importance as they have been implicated in several human diseases such as muscular dystrophy, cancer, hypertension, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. We report the results of a protein array aimed at mapping all the human WW domain protein-protein interactions. Our biochemical approach integrates parallel synthesis of peptides, protein expression, and high-throughput screening methodology combined with tools of bioinformatics. The results suggest that the majority of the bioinformatically predicted WW peptide ligands and most WW domains are functional, and that only about 10% of the measured domain-ligand interactions are positive. The analysis of the WW domain protein arrays also underscores the importance of the amino acid residues surrounding the WW ligand core motifs for specific binding to WW domains. In addition, the methodology presented here allows for the rapid elucidation of WW domain-ligand interactions with multiple applications including prediction of exact WW ligand binding sites, which can be applied to the mapping of other protein signaling domain families. Such information can be applied to the generation of protein interaction networks and identification of potential drug targets. To our knowledge, this report describes the first protein-protein interaction map of a domain in the human proteome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Motifs
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Computational Biology
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Ligands
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Peptides / chemistry
  • Proline / chemistry*
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Structure, Secondary
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Signal Transduction
  • Software


  • Ligands
  • Peptides
  • Proline
  • Glutathione Transferase