Two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometry is a powerful approach to compare protein expression in brain tissues. Using this proteomic approach, and based on the hypothesis that schizophrenia involves hypoglutamergic brain function, alterations in protein levels in the thalamus of rats treated with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist [+]-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo-[a,d]-cycloheptene-5,10-iminehydrogenmaleate (MK-801), as compared to saline-treated animals, were assessed in an unbiased fashion. The rats were divided into two groups; group 1 (short-term treated) and group 2 (long-term treated). In group 1, the levels of seven proteins were increased and four proteins reduced. In group 2, the levels of six proteins were reduced. Several of the altered proteins (heat shock proteins 60 and 72, albumin, dihydropyrimidinase related protein-2, aldolase c, and malate dehydrogenase) have previously been connected to schizophrenia. Alterations of other proteins (dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2, guanine deaminase, alpha-enolase, aconitase, ATP-synthase and alpha-internexin), have not, to the best of our knowledge, earlier been implicated in schizophrenia pathology. Our results show the high potential of using proteomic methods for the validation of animal models of schizophrenia and to identify new proteins involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia.