Novel approaches for modeling of the A1 adenosine receptor and its agonist binding site

Proteins. 2004 Mar 1;54(4):705-15. doi: 10.1002/prot.10617.


The present work describes the building of a human A(1) adenosine receptor (hA(1)AR) model, based on the X-ray crystal structure of bovine rhodopsin, and its use as a basis for the investigation of some important structural characteristics of the receptor. One of the issues investigated was the protonation position of two histidine residues known to influence ligand binding, with protonation of His251 (6.52) in epsilon position and His278 (7.43) in delta position showing the best agreement with experimental evidence. The model was also used to study the position and structural role of water molecules present in the helical bundle. Finally, the binding site location and the ligand docking were investigated using an objective strategy. A suitable site for the binding of the ribose moiety of adenosine was first postulated and further confirmed by means of a novel chemometric strategy based on GRIND descriptors. Using this position as an anchor point, the binding of adenosine was studied by docking and molecular dynamics simulations obtaining two putative binding positions in good agreement with experimental data.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine / chemistry
  • Adenosine / metabolism*
  • Adenosine / pharmacology*
  • Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists*
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Binding Sites
  • Cattle
  • Computer Simulation*
  • Crystallography, X-Ray
  • Histidine / genetics
  • Histidine / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Bonding
  • Ligands
  • Models, Molecular*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Protein Structure, Secondary
  • Protons
  • Receptor, Adenosine A1 / chemistry*
  • Receptor, Adenosine A1 / metabolism
  • Water / chemistry
  • Water / metabolism


  • Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists
  • Ligands
  • Protons
  • Receptor, Adenosine A1
  • Water
  • Histidine
  • Adenosine