Improving the reporting quality of nonrandomized evaluations of behavioral and public health interventions: the TREND statement

Am J Public Health. 2004 Mar;94(3):361-6. doi: 10.2105/ajph.94.3.361.


Developing an evidence base for making public health decisions will require using data from evaluation studies with randomized and nonrandomized designs. Assessing individual studies and using studies in quantitative research syntheses require transparent reporting of the study, with sufficient detail and clarity to readily see differences and similarities among studies in the same area. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement provides guidelines for transparent reporting of randomized clinical trials. We present the initial version of the Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Nonrandomized Designs (TREND) statement. These guidelines emphasize the reporting of theories used and descriptions of intervention and comparison conditions, research design, and methods of adjusting for possible biases in evaluation studies that use nonrandomized designs.

Publication types

  • Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Behavioral Research*
  • Decision Making
  • Epidemiologic Research Design*
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Humans
  • Information Dissemination
  • Periodicals as Topic / standards
  • Program Evaluation / methods*
  • Public Health Practice*
  • Publishing / standards*
  • Quality Control
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic / methods