Design and analysis of group-randomized trials: a review of recent methodological developments

Am J Public Health. 2004 Mar;94(3):423-32. doi: 10.2105/ajph.94.3.423.


We review recent developments in the design and analysis of group-randomized trials (GRTs). Regarding design, we summarize developments in estimates of intraclass correlation, power analysis, matched designs, designs involving one group per condition, and designs in which individuals are randomized to receive treatments in groups. Regarding analysis, we summarize developments in marginal and conditional models, the sandwich estimator, model-based estimators, binary data, survival analysis, randomization tests, survey methods, latent variable methods and nonlinear mixed models, time series methods, global tests for multiple endpoints, mediation effects, missing data, trial reporting, and software. We encourage investigators who conduct GRTs to become familiar with these developments and to collaborate with methodologists who can strengthen the design and analysis of their trials.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cluster Analysis*
  • Epidemiologic Research Design*
  • Humans
  • Public Health Practice*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic / methods*
  • Software
  • Time Factors