Objective: Evaluation of ventilatory and circulatory effects with coaxial double-lumen tube ventilation for dead-space reduction as compared with standard endotracheal tube ventilation.
Design: Experimental study in a pig model of lung lavage induced acute lung injury.
Setting: University research laboratory.
Measurements and results: Tidal volumes of 6, 8 and 10 ml/kg body weight with a set respiratory rate of 20 breaths per minute were used in a random order with both double-lumen ventilation and standard endotracheal tube ventilation. Measurements of ventilatory and circulatory parameters were obtained after steady state at each experimental stage. With a tidal volume of 6 ml/kg, PaCO(2) was reduced from 10.9 kPa (95% CI 9.0-12.9) with a standard endotracheal tube to 8.2 kPa (95% CI 7.0-9.4) with double-lumen ventilation. This corresponds to a reduction in carbon dioxide levels by 25%. At 6 ml/kg, pH increased from 7.17 (95% CI 7.09-7.24) with a standard endotracheal tube to 7.27 (95% CI 7.21-7.32) with double-lumen ventilation. Tracheal pressure was monitored continuously and no difference between single- or double-lumen ventilation was noted at corresponding levels of ventilation. There was no formation of auto-PEEP. Partial tube obstruction due to secretions was not observed during the experiments.
Conclusions: Coaxial double-lumen tube ventilation is an effective adjunct to reduce technical dead space. It attenuates hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis in a lung injury pig model.