A prospective epidemiological survey of candidaemia was performed in central Sweden from January 1998 to December 1999. In total, 191 episodes were reported with an overall rate of 0.32/1000 admissions. Candida albicans was identified in 128 cases (67%), followed by Candida glabrata in 30 (15.7%) and Candida parapsilosis in 14 (7.3%). Predisposing factors included surgery (31.4%), intensive care (18.8%), solid tumour or haematological malignancy (15.7%), and foetal immaturity (15.7%). Non-albicans Candida species were more prevalent among patients with haematological malignancies (56%), compared to surgical (30%) and ICU patients (19%). The crude mortality rate of candidaemia was 31%. The highest mortality rate was observed in patients with haematological malignancies (41.2%), age > 70 y (41%), surgery (38.5%) and infections with > 1 Candida species (40%) or C. glabrata (38%).