Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in HIV patients encounters inefficacy and relapse due to drug resistance, toxicity and immunodepression. Our goal was to evaluate treatment of these patients by liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB). Since 1998, five clinical files were exploitable out of 13 patients. Protocols used bolus doses ranging between 2.9 and 4.1 mg/kg dispatched on 5-24 days, followed by maintenance dose ranging from 2.7 to 3.8 mg/kg every 15 days. Attack treatment involved high bolus dose (cumulated doses ranging from 60 to 86 mg/kg at day 30) and allowed favorable clinical and biological results with healing in four patients. Secondary prophylaxis with L-AmB has been efficacious and well tolerated in three patients. Although literature and study results cannot indicate a standard therapeutic care in these patients, an initial treatment by L-AmB at doses higher than marketing-approved doses with a secondary prophylaxis by L-AmB associated with an antiretroviral treatment seem to be major asset in order to obtain healing. Expanding this study to a multicenter trial should allow to better define the frequency and duration of the secondary prophylaxis and to evaluate the risk of therapeutic escape as well as the life-span increase.