The human glycoprotein PC-1 codon Q121 allele has been correlated with insulin resistance, but not with type 2 diabetes or obesity. We investigated the prevalence of PC-1 Q121 in the Dominican Republic population (755 subjects studied) and whether this variant is associated with insulin resistance, obesity, or type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of PC-1 Q121 was high compared with that in other populations. The proportions of genotypes detected were: KK, 21.6%; KQ, 48.3%; and QQ, 30.1%. This compares to approximately 74%, 24%, and 2% in other populations. Among nonobese, nondiabetic subjects, the insulin response of KQ (P = 0.027) and QQ (P = 0.031) subjects was greater during the oral glucose tolerance test than that of KK subjects, whereas plasma glucose profiles were comparable. The Q allele was more prevalent in obese type 2 diabetics than in controls (P = 0.026; odds ratio = 1.56). Multiple regression analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index, showed the QQ genotype to be associated with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.043; odds ratio = 2.74), but not obesity (P = 0.068). These results indicate that the PC-1 Q121 allele is exceptionally prevalent in the Dominican Republic, contributing to both insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.