There are currently no universally accepted indications and criteria for additional surgical resection of the colorectum after endoscopic resection of the submucosal invasive cancer. The purpose of the present study is to establish accurate indications and criteria for additional surgical resection of the colorectum, based on the prediction of lymph node metastasis, after endoscopic resection of the submucosal invasive cancer. We investigated 140 submucosal invasive colorectal cancers and analyzed the pathologic factors of lymph node metastasis. The tumors were evaluated for pathologic factors in the invasive area of the submucosal carcinoma and were compared between the cases with lymph node metastasis and those without lymph node metastasis. Lymph node metastasis was observed in 13 cases (9%). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the depth of invasion, cribriform-type structural atypia, absence of lymphoid infiltration, lymphatic permeation, and venous permeation were statistically significant as risk factors for lymph node metastasis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the important risk factors included, in decreasing order, lymphatic permeation, absence of lymphoid infiltration, cribriform-type structural atypia, venous permeation, and depth of invasion. Submucosal invasion of 2 mm or more, and/or, depth of lymphatic permeation of 2 mm or more are risk factors for lymph node metastasis. The pathologic criteria based on our results for additional colectomy enables greater accuracy selection of patients who will undergo further surgical treatment after endoscopic resection.