In order to develop a structured and objective diagnostic instrument, authors completed: (1) the translation and back translation of the Korean version of the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and (2) the examination of its validity and reliability of the K-SADS-PL-Korean version (K-SADS- PL) when used with Korean children. A total of 91 study subjects were recruited from child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinics. Clinical diagnoses were used as a gold standard for the examination of validity of K-SADS-PL-K. Consensual validity of threshold and sub-threshold diagnoses were good to excellent for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), fair for tic and oppositional defiant disorders, and poor to fair for anxiety and depressive disorders. Inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities were fair to excellent for ADHD and tic disorder. The significant correlations between the K-SADS-PL-K and Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) were found, which provided additional support for the concurrent validity of the K-SADS-PL-K. Sensitivities varied according to the diagnostic categories, but specificities remained high over all diagnoses, suggesting that the K-SADS-PL-K is a desirable confirmatory diagnostic tool. The results of this study suggest that the K-SADS-PL-K is an effective instrument for diagnosing major child psychiatric disorders, including ADHD, behavioral disorders and tic disorders in Korean children. Future studies will examine the validity and reliability of the K-SADS-PL-K in larger samples, including adolescents and community samples on a variety of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders.