According to observations in various cell lines, elimination of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) during the late G1 phase of the cell cycle is required for progression to the S phase. Eyes from C57BL/6 mice at embryonic days 13, 14, and 18, and at 4 weeks of age, were analyzed by a bromodeoxyuridine cell proliferation assay and by immunocytochemistry using anti-p27(KIP1) antibody. On embryonic days 14 and 18, p27(KIP1) was detected in the ciliary body. This protein also was detected in the nuclei of the many cells of the retinal pigment epithelium on embryonic day 18, and was present in all such cells at 4 weeks of age. When p27(KIP1)-/- knockout and control mice were injected with bromodeoxyuridine between postnatal days 7 and 10 and analyzed on day 11, positive cells were abundant in the retinal pigment epithelium and the ciliary body of p27(KIP1)-/- mice, whereas few cells were positive in control mice. By fluorescent nuclear staining in whole mounts of retinal pigment epithelium at 12 weeks of age, more nuclei were present in p27(KIP1)-/- than in the wild-type mice. These results suggest that p27(KIP1) was involved in regulation of proliferation in the RPE and the ciliary body.