Bacterial endotoxin testing: a report on the methods, background, data, and regulatory history of extraction recovery efficiency

Biomed Instrum Technol. Jan-Feb 2004;38(1):73-8. doi: 10.2345/0899-8205(2004)38[73:betaro];2.


Since the mid-1970s the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay has been used to test medical devices for bacterial endotoxins. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) recently published a standard designated ANSI/AAMI ST 72: 2002, Bacterial Endotoxins--Test methodologies, routine monitoring, and alternatives to batch testing, which addresses LAL testing and associated issues. In order to perform the bacterial endotoxins test (BET), the test article must be extracted in an aqueous medium, with the extract being used as the test solution. In the early years of testing, and periodically throughout LAL test history, questions have arisen about validation of the extraction efficiency of endotoxins from medical devices. The AAMI Microbiological Methods Committee appointed a Task Group to thoroughly research the issue of extraction efficiency and to recommend whether validation of extraction efficiency is necessary for LAL testing of medical devices.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Advisory Committees
  • Bacterial Toxins / analysis*
  • Consumer Product Safety / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Consumer Product Safety / standards*
  • Endotoxins / analysis*
  • Equipment Contamination / prevention & control*
  • Limulus Test / instrumentation
  • Limulus Test / methods*
  • Limulus Test / standards*
  • Limulus Test / trends
  • United States


  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Endotoxins