The derangement of glucose metabolism is found frequently in all forms of hyperparathyroidism. Both in primary (PHPT) and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) PTH excess is thought to be involved in deteriorating insulin sensitivity and secretion though their different clinical and pathophysiological conditions. In PHPT these abnormalities are related to a high frequency of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and also impaired glucose tolerance according to recent clinical studies, without differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic clinical presentation. In chronic renal failure (CRF), the disorders of glucose metabolism due to SHPT do not bear an increased risk for diabetes whereas they seem to be involved in the progression of atherosclerotic vascular damage which connotes CRF. Moreover, clinical and experimental studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency associated with glucose metabolism abnormalities favors the development of the metabolic syndrome. The potential for metabolic and cardiovascular harm related to hyperparathyroidism, especially PHPT, is the most interesting issue for clinical endocrinologists. This short review of the clinical and pathophysiological data of literature on glucose homeostasis disorders in hyperparathyroidism focuses on its potential clinical and therapeutic impact, particularly in the management of PHPT.