Reduced p18INK4c, p21CIP1/WAF1 and p27KIP1 mRNA levels in tumours of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004 Mar;60(3):389-93. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2004.01995.x.


Objective: Hyperparathyroidism (HPT) refers to states of excessive production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). The eukaryotic cell cycle is driven forward by cyclins and their cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) partners. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs), which generally inhibit cell cycle progression, modulate the activity of cyclin-CDK complexes.

Design: In order to quantify the expression of the CKI genes p18, p21, and p27 semiquantitative RT-PCR with mRNA specific-primers was performed on four normal parathyroid biopsies, 31 parathyroid adenomas of primary HPT and 13 hyperplastic glands from uraemic patients with secondary HPT.

Patients: Parathyroid adenomas and secondary hyperplastic glands were obtained from 31 and 13 randomly selected patients undergoing parathyroidectomy in the clinical routine, respectively. Four normal parathyroid gland biopsies were obtained at surgery for pHPT or from normocalcemic patients undergoing thyroidectomy for goitre.

Results: The relative p27 expression (p27/GAPDH) was significantly reduced in parathyroid adenomas compared to normal parathyroid gland biopsies. Furthermore, 42% and 53% of the parathyroid adenomas displayed undetectable p18 and p21 expression levels, respectively. All 13 adenomas that lacked p18 expression showed undetectable p21 expression. The p18 expression was significantly lower in tumours of uraemic sHPT as compared to normal parathyroids and an undetectable expression level was observed for p21 and p27 in 61% and 53%, respectively.

Conclusion: Parathyroid adenomas and secondary hyperplastic glands exhibit aberrant reduced expression of the CKIs p18, p21, and p27. This suggests that deranged collaboration of different CKIs may contribute to the development of both primary and secondary HPT.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adenoma / metabolism*
  • Aged
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics*
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p18
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Cyclins / genetics
  • Gene Expression
  • Humans
  • Hyperparathyroidism / metabolism*
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / metabolism
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / pathology
  • Hyperplasia
  • Parathyroid Glands / pathology
  • Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • Uremia / metabolism
  • Uremia / pathology


  • CDKN1A protein, human
  • CDKN2C protein, human
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p18
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Cyclins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases