Rituximab, chimeric anti-human CD-20, is approved for treatment of B-cell lymphoma in adults. It is being used experimentally in other various immune-related disease such as immune thrombocytopenic purpura, myasthenia gravis, and rheumatoid arthritis. In transplant recipients it is used for treatment of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, and prevention and treatment of acute rejection. There are few data on its use in children. This paper reviews the use of rituximab in these disease states and provides hypotheses for its mode of action.