Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among middle-aged Finnish men and women

JAMA. 2004 Mar 10;291(10):1213-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.291.10.1213.


Context: Only a few studies of coffee consumption and diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported, even though coffee is the most consumed beverage in the world.

Objective: To determine the relationship between coffee consumption and the incidence of type 2 DM among Finnish individuals, who have the highest coffee consumption in the world.

Design, setting, and participants: A prospective study from combined surveys conducted in 1982, 1987, and 1992 of 6974 Finnish men and 7655 women aged 35 to 64 years without history of stroke, coronary heart disease, or DM at baseline, with 175 682 person-years of follow-up. Coffee consumption and other study parameters were determined at baseline using standardized measurements.

Main outcome measures: Hazard ratios (HRs) for the incidence of type 2 DM were estimated for different levels of daily coffee consumption.

Results: During a mean follow-up of 12 years, there were 381 incident cases of type 2 DM. After adjustment for confounding factors (age, study year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, education, occupational, commuting and leisure-time physical activity, alcohol and tea consumption, and smoking), the HRs of DM associated with the amount of coffee consumed daily (0-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-9, > or =10 cups) were 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-1.05), 0.39 (95% CI, 0.25-0.60), 0.39 (95% CI, 0.20-0.74), and 0.21 (95% CI, 0.06-0.69) (P for trend<.001) in women, and 1.00, 0.73 (95% CI, 0.47-1.13), 0.70 (95% CI, 0.45-1.05), 0.67 (95% CI, 0.40-1.12), and 0.45 (95% CI, 0.25-0.81) (P for trend =.12) in men, respectively. In both sexes combined, the multivariate-adjusted inverse association was significant (P for trend <.001) and persisted when stratified by younger and older than 50 years; smokers and never smokers; healthy weight, overweight, and obese participants; alcohol drinker and nondrinker; and participants drinking filtered and nonfiltered coffee.

Conclusion: Coffee drinking has a graded inverse association with the risk of type 2 DM; however, the reasons for this risk reduction associated with coffee remain unclear.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Coffee* / physiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Finland / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk


  • Coffee