Many microorganisms possess inducible mechanisms that concentrate CO2 at the carboxylation site, compensating for the relatively low affinity of Rubisco for its substrate, and allowing acclimation to a wide range of CO2 concentrations. The organization of the carboxysomes in prokaryotes and of the pyrenoids in eukaryotes, and the presence of membrane mechanisms for inorganic carbon (Ci) transport, are central to the concentrating mechanism. The presence of multiple Ci transporting systems in cyanobacteria has been indicated. Certain genes involved in structural organization, Ci transport and the energization of the latter have been identified. Massive Ci fluxes associated with the CO2-concentrating mechanism have wide-reaching ecological and geochemical implications.