Predaceous Coccinellidae in biological control

Annu Rev Entomol. 1998;43:295-321. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.295.

Abstract

Coccinellids have been widely used in biological control for over a century, and the methods for using these predators have remained virtually unchanged. The causes for the relatively low rates of establishment of coccinellids in importation biological control have not been examined for most species. Augmentative releases of several coccinellid species are well documented and effective; however, ineffective species continue to be used because of ease of collection. For most agricultural systems, conservation techniques for coccinellids are lacking, even though they are abundant in these habitats. Evaluation techniques are available, but quantitative assessments of the efficacy of coccinellids have not been done for most species in most agricultural crops. Greater emphasis is needed on evaluation, predator specificity, understanding colonization of new environments, and assessment of community-level interactions to maximize the use of coccinellids in biological control.