The papaya crop is severely affected by papaya ringspot virus (PSRV) worldwide. This review focuses on efforts to control the destructiveness of the disease caused by PSRV in Hawaii, starting from the use of cross protection to parasite-derived resistance with transgenic papaya expressing the PSRV coat protein gene. A chronology of the research effort is given and related to the development of technologies and the pressing need to control PSRV in Hawaii. The development of commercial virus-resistant transgenic papaya provides a tangible approach to control PSRV in Hawaii. Moreover, the development of transgenic papaya by other laboratories and employment of a mechanism of effective technology transfer to different countries hold promise for control of PSRV worldwide.