Systemic acquired resistance

Annu Rev Phytopathol. 1997;35:235-70. doi: 10.1146/annurev.phyto.35.1.235.


This paper examines induced resistance (SAR) in plants against various insect and pathogenic invaders. SAR confers quantitative protection against a broad spectrum of microorganisms in a manner comparable to immunization in mammals, although the underlying mechanisms differ. Discussed here are the molecular events underlying SAR: the mechanisms involved in SAR, including lignification and other structural barriers, pathogenesis-related proteins and their expression, and the signals for SAR including salicylic acid. Recent findings on the biological role of systemin, ethylene, jasmonates, and electrical signals are reviewed. Chemical activators of SAR comprise inorganic compounds, natural compounds, and synthetic compounds. Plants known to exhibit SAR and induced systemic resistance are listed.