Randomized controlled trials of smoking interventions have not been well-documented for lung cancer screening populations. In this study, we randomly assigned 171 current smokers who were undergoing low-dose fast spiral chest CT (SCTS) for lung cancer screening to receive either standard written self-help materials or a written list of Internet resources for smoking cessation. At the 1-year follow-up, more of the subjects receiving Internet-based resources reported making a stop attempt (68% versus 48%, P=0.011). However, there were no statistically significant differences in 7-day point prevalence quit rates (5% versus 10%) or advancement in motivational readiness to stop smoking (27% versus 30%), respectively, between the groups. Clearly, more investigation is warranted into how to tailor smoking interventions for cancer screening participants.