Treatment of chronic hyponatremia in rats by intravenous saline: comparison of rate versus magnitude of correction

Kidney Int. 1992 Jun;41(6):1662-7. doi: 10.1038/ki.1992.239.

Abstract

The role of the rate of correction in the development of demyelinating brain lesions after correction of chronic severe hyponatremia is controversial. It has been recently suggested in rats treated by intravenous (i.v.) hypertonic saline (NaCl) that both the rate and the absolute change in serum sodium represent critical risk factors. However, we previously demonstrated in rats treated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of NaCl that below a threshold of serum sodium rise of 20 mEq/liter/24 hr, only 5% of the brain lesions were recorded, even in rats submitted to a rapid (1 hr) serum sodium increment following the i.p. injection. Working below this threshold (serum sodium rise less than 20 mEq/liter/24 hr) in the present work, allowed us to independently determine the role of the rate in the outcome of the correction. This was done by submitting the rats to a rapid (1 hr) intravenous infusion of NaCl. As a difference between the i.p. and i.v. route in the degree of volume expansion produced by the NaCl administration could also play a role in the pathogenesis of the brain lesions, rats treated with rapid i.v. infusion of NaCl (associated with volume expansion) were compared to a group of rats treated with water restriction (associated to volume contraction) to evaluate the role of volemia on the incidence of neurological damage. Hyponatremia was induced over three days with d-glucose in water and vasopressin. The group 1 was corrected by intravenous (i.v.) infusion of hypertonic saline over one hour.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Volume
  • Brain Diseases / etiology
  • Chronic Disease
  • Demyelinating Diseases / etiology
  • Hyponatremia / blood
  • Hyponatremia / complications
  • Hyponatremia / therapy*
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Male
  • Osmotic Pressure
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred Strains
  • Saline Solution, Hypertonic / administration & dosage*
  • Saline Solution, Hypertonic / toxicity
  • Sodium / blood
  • Water Deprivation

Substances

  • Saline Solution, Hypertonic
  • Sodium